We're All Zombies

Night of the Living Dead (1968) - Directed by George Romero
"I have always liked the 'monster within' idea. I like to think of zombies as being us. Zombies are the blue-collar monsters." - George Romero

The most heinous thing a human can do is eat another human.  Fear of cannibalism along with the other two great taboos, incest and intra-family violence, are the bedrocks of human culture.  Without these taboos there is no human civilization, yet zombie cannibals are everywhere, from the most popular TV shows in the US and Europe to the most played PC games.   Everywhere we look there is a zombie dragging his feet looking for human prey.  The ubiquitous nature of this meme of semi-human creatures that survive only by breaking the most fundamental of human taboos is a clear indicator of a collective cultural pathology.

Humans must not only kill and eat plants and animals to survive, we must make sure they keep coming back so they can be killed and eaten again and again.  Life needs death;  we must kill to live, and eventually we all wind up as someone else's food.  This paradox lies at the core of the world’s religions and mythologies and the fear/repulsion of eating other humans is the keystone of our culture, without it we turn on ourselves and self-annihilation ensues.  The zombie meme is a modern myth pointing to a deep fear of self-destruction.

The great psychologist and mystic Carl Jung was asked if a myth could be equated to a collective dream and he answered this way, “A myth…is the product of an unconscious process in a particular social group, at a particular time, at a particular place. This unconscious process can naturally be equated with a dream. Hence anyone who ‘mythologizes,’ that is, tells myths, is speaking out of this dream.”

If a person had a recurring nightmare that she was eating her family it would be a clear symptom of a profound psychological disturbance.  Cultures don’t dream, but they do tell stories and those stories can tell us much about the state of the collective psyche.

Many of the themes in our popular culture are conscious story telling devices with the definite purpose of social engineering/control, but others seem to just emerge from the collective unconscious like the stuff of dreams.  The zombie meme is clearly of the latter variety.   It's pointing to a fear that something has broken in our culture and what awaits us is a collective psychotic break of apocalyptic proportions.

In the 1950’s there were widespread fears of a communist takeover that expressed themselves through films like The Village of the Damned or the Invasion of the Body Snatchers.  But the zombie meme exposes something much darker in our collective psyche.  The fundamental taboo around cannibalism is a pillar of human culture, yet the zombies are obsessive cannibals and we can’t seem to get enough of them.

What does this new archetype of a cannibalistic apocalypse reveal about out culture?  By nature archetypes point to transcendent themes that evade definition.  They are not symbols that have a clear equivalent, they can only point in the general direction which in the case of the zombie meme is the inverting of some of our most sacred myths and the embracing of our most horrid taboos.

The Walking Dead - The most watched TV show
 in the 18 to 49 year old demographic in the United States.
The zombie meme emerged onto the American consciousnesses with George Romero’s 1968 cult classic, The Night of the Living Dead.  The archetype was invigorated with Danny Boyles’s  2002 film, 28 Days Later  which introduced an important new element: the apocalypse.

The meme reached maturity in 2010 when AMC launched The Walking Dead, now the number #1 show on US television for viewers between the ages of 18 and 49.  The Walking Dead was created by Frank Darabont, director of The Shawshank Redemption, and is based on a comic book series written by Robert Kirkman, Tony Moore, and Charlie Adlard.  The key to the success of The Walking Dead is the dystopian zombie apocalypse in which the story unravels, allowing it to outperform even the ultimate social opiate, Sunday Night Football.

This is not simply an American phenomenon. In France the series The Returned (French: Les Revenants) has been very popular with both viewers and critics.  The Returned puts a fascinating twist on the return of the dead-  they just start walking home after having been dead for many years as if nothing had happened.  The BBC’s  In the Flesh  focuses on reintegrating zombies, victims of PDS (Partially Dead Syndrome).  World Z  had Brad Pitt save the world from fast moving zombies on the big screen and Mel Brook’s son Max even wrote a book titled The Zombie Survival Guide.

The Inverted Christian Mythos

In one episode of The Walking Dead the zombies are seen shuffling under the arch of an episcopal church inscribed with a passage from the gospel of John,  “He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life”.  Over a billion Catholics in the world regularly participate in the transformation of bread and wine into what they believe is the actual flesh and blood of their savior, Jesus of Nazareth, and then eat him.  Catholics believe this sacramental right gives them eternal life.  In the zombie meme, however, the infected humans die and are born again but not unto salvation but into a hell of insatiable appetites and mindless meandering.

The Christian myth is agricultural; Christ is killed, buried, and comes to life three days later as the seed emerging from the ground,  just as the moon hides for three days behind the sun each month, only to be born again.  Christ’s body is the ‘sacred’ meal, the sacrificial food of the gods, his blood is their elixir.  The Catholic acts as the god receiving the sacred meal and by doing so gains the eternal qualities of the gods by breaking the most embedded of human taboos – the eating of human flesh.   It’s certainly a curios paradox that the sins of man are forgiven by committing cannibalism, as Catholic doctrine clearly states that Jesus was both man and God and the transubstantiation of the Catholic mass physically changes the bread and wine into the flesh and blood of Jesus.

As the Christian myth begins its third millennium, is the zombie meme telling us that this religious story is no longer viable ?  Are billions of ‘zombies’ eating flesh and drinking blood but finding no nourishment?  The vast majority of Western people  have a profound belief in science and science tells us that the story of Jesus is not to be taken literally, yet our churches insist that the ‘myth’ of Jesus is historical.  The Christian software no longer works as the science ‘virus’ has rendered it useless.

Myths are other people’s religions and for Westerners in need of spiritual ‘food’ the Eastern systems of yoga and Buddhism, which don’t depend on dogma that contradicts science, seem to be more palatable to their scientific worldviews.  Unfortunately, those ‘programs’ where written for a machine other than modern Western man.

Joseph Campbell described believing in a literal, historical God as someone eating a menu believing that they were really eating the food.   One clear component of the zombie meme is the spiritual starvation we are experiencing in the West.  We are eating the menus so the speak- old, meaningless books written by foreign peoples from far off places thousands of years ago, and they give us no nourishment.

The Hunger

Dawn of the Dead (1978) George Romero
Another essential quality of the zombie is it’s unquenchable hunger.  No amount of flesh and blood seems able to quench the longing to consume live human flesh.  Modern man has a similar problem-  no amount of money, sex, gadgets, job titles, drugs, entertainment, pornography, art, religion or gurus seem able to quench our thirst.  We live in constant hunger.

If we equate the zombie ‘hunger’ for flesh to the human desire for money, the comparison becomes almost uncanny.  Most adult humans spend most of their day either making money or spending it while being constantly bombarded with propaganda/advertising to keep them hungry.

From the most humble street vendor to the billionaires on CNBC, no one seems to ever have enough money.   Zombies need to eat live human flesh and money is at its core, human labor.  Our craving for money is really the craving for the work of others, for the sweat and blood of millions to furnish us with unlimited amounts of food and consumer goods.

The vast majority of Westerners have ceased to create anything tangible.  Only one in five Americans actually produce anything.  Eating what one produces on a farm or trading manufactured goods for food connects us to life.   But when people spend ten hours hours a day in an office looking at a computer screen and two hours in traffic, somehow eating, and living, become abstract.  What are we actually doing to create the food , heat, and the shelter we need?

Our hunger for food and things far outstrips our practical needs and has become the cause of our ever more obese, angry, unsatisfied society while our spiritual hunger leaves us addicted, chasing empty consumer thrills.  There is no end to what can be consumed and there is never enough for even those with billions; we always need more.

Zombies Don’t Surf 

Halloween surf contest in Santa Monica - Lucy Nicholson/Reuters
Zombies don’t think, they simply move in big herds looking for their next meal, reminiscent of the herds piling up behind the doors of malls on Black Friday.  Curiously, the only way to kill them is to shoot them in their least vulnerable point, their brains.

Modern man is almost entirely without out any practical skills.  He doesn't know how to grow food, hunt animals or build a house.  He uses all sorts of electronic tools whose core technologies he doesn't really understand and which he doesn't have the slightest idea how to fix.

This set of circumstances is a recent development in human history, beginning in the 18th century and growing exponentially in the last 30 years during the information revolution.  We are helpless slaves to technologies we don’t understand and to media that programs us to believe all sorts of propaganda designed to keep us from actually thinking critically.

The Zombie Apocalypse

Dawn of the Dead - 2004 Re-make
At least since the time of Christ, western man has been waiting for one apocalypse or another.  Be it the return of Christ, the turn of the millennium, nuclear war, killer meteorites or UFO’s, apocalyptic fears are nothing new to us.  Yet it’s no coincidence that just as the zombie took over prime time with The Walking Dead, the term 'preppers' began to appear. The intensity of apocalyptic thinking has noticeably increased in the last few years as shows like Doomsday Preppers is the most watched program in the history of the National Geographic Channel.

The latest wave of apocalyptic furor to take over the US is not based on fears of nuclear war or the return of Jesus, but on the collapse of the financial system which gave us a shot over the bow in 2008.  We are so far removed from any practical and productive activities that if the extremely complex financial and logistical infrastructure of the world gave way, how would we survive?  If our stores were suddenly empty how many people in the West would be able to produce food, fuel and shelter?  The vast majority of us are so far removed from the practical necessities of life that we are in a very real sense, mindless, insatiable, endlessly consuming zombies.

Not only do we not understand the technologies we use, we seem to trust that the complex systems that maintain us will continue working seamlessly even as doubts grow over the people who brought us the sub-prime debacle, the Iraq War and quantitative easing (QE).  What would happen to the world supply chain if the confidence in the dollar as a reserve currency were lost?  Is the ever increasing gap between rich and poor about to explode into all out class/race war?  A key element of the zombie meme is the underlying fear of societal collapse.

The Myth is Dead

Sometime after Galileo but before Newton, science lost the need for meaning.  For Galileo the universe, including the earth, was alive but by the time of Newton it was a dead machine.  The importance of this shift cannot be overestimated.  Galileo was describing something that was alive, that had a soul, a soul humans participated in, but by the time of Newton and the Enlightenment we were existing in a cold universe.  The world went from breathing like a mother to ticking like a clock.

From the earliest known cave paintings made over 40,000 years ago to the mystery schools of pre-Aryan Europe through to medieval Christian Europe, the West has been guided by profound mythical stories.

Science can give us answers to almost all our questions, yet in the end its meaninglessness is disquieting.  Science gives us technologies and deep understandings of the mechanics of the universe, but it's unwilling to the breach the topic of meaning.  We are asked to live for cliches, consumerism, hedonism or fundamentalism.  Rejecting science is absurd but embracing it is deadening.

If we were able to understand our own religions in the same spirit that we decipher the religions of others (myths) while embracing science (with its limitations), than maybe we could find our way to a new myth that would shed meaning on our cold world.  But myths emerge, they are not consciously created, and for the moment we wade in the void of knowing how but not why.  We consume but are never filled, we seek but we do not find.

We are all zombies.


  1. Fantastic read - I enjoyed it very much!!

  2. Hey Robert, thanks for the inspiration. I wrote:

    In We're All Zombies, Robert Bonomo writes about (1) how zombies are popular, and (2) how they're popular because we're mindless consumers who can't support ourselves. Bonomo offers a rather traditional article, in the sense that he discusses how previous generations of humans wrongly thought that sky was falling, but how they were self-sufficient, lived off the land, understood their technology, and were therefore filled with purpose, while modern humans have recently lost purpose while simultaneously discovering that the sky is actually falling this time for reals yo.

    Lots of fun things suggest themselves. Firstly, the recursive marveling at "the zombie phenomenon," which is one of those quixotically undiscovered aspects of postmodern omnipresence, wherein everything is both new and and old. In The Ancient Battle Against the Undead, we discussed how conceptions of stories about undeath were not fantasies based upon our repressed psychological fears, but rather, culturally encoded warnings meant to prohibit very real, tangible, objectively falsifiable behavior patterns, such as the correlation between sickness, warfare, and life extension techniques. In Classic Necro Pr0n, we covered the thousands-of-years-old history of zombie stories, which extend deeper into the Terran past than...

    Continued at:


    clickable: We're Not All Zombies & We've Always All Been Zombies.

  3. Excellent piece! I shared on my FB page. I wish you much success.